Thursday, September 8, 2016

Static vs. dynamic typing of programming languages [source]

Updated 2010-10-20 — added a bit more information about Boo’s type inferencing.
Updated 2012-04-08 — This post is an appendix to a post comparing Java and Python. Some comments on this post are actually comments on that other post.
There is widespread confusion or disagreement about the meanings of the words static, dynamic, strong and weak when used to describe the type systems of programming languages.
Here is a description of the way (or at least one of the ways) these terms are most commonly used.
In a statically typed language, every variable name is bound both
  • to a type (at compile time, by means of a data declaration)
  • to an object.
The binding to an object is optional — if a name is not bound to an object, the name is said to be null.
Once a variable name has been bound to a type (that is, declared) it can be bound (via an assignment statement) only to objects of that type; it cannot ever be bound to an object of a different type. An attempt to bind the name to an object of the wrong type will raise a type exception.
In a dynamically typed language, every variable name is (unless it is null) bound only to an object.
Names are bound to objects at execution time by means of assignment statements, and it is possible to bind a name to objects of different types during the execution of the program.
Here is an example.
In a statically-typed language, the following sequence of statements (which binds an integer object, then a string object, to the name employeeName) is illegal. IfemployeeName had been declared to be an int, then the second statement would be illegal; if it had been declared to be a String, then the first statement would be illegal. But in a dynamically-typed language this sequence of statements is perfectly fine.
employeeName = 9
employeeName = "Steve Ferg"
Python is a dynamically-typed language. Java is a statically-typed language.
In a weakly typed language, variables can be implicitly coerced to unrelated types, whereas in a strongly typed language they cannot, and an explicit conversion is required. (Note that I said unrelated types. Most languages will allow implicit coercions between related types — for example, the addition of an integer and a float. By unrelated types I mean things like numbers and strings.) In a typical weakly typed language, the number 9 and the string “9” are interchangeable, and the following sequence of statements is legal.
a  = 9
b = "9"
c = concatenate(a, b)  // produces "99"
d = add(a, b)          // produces 18
In a strongly typed language, on the other hand, the last two statements would raise type exceptions. To avoid these exceptions, some kind of explicit type conversion would be necessary, like this.
a  = 9
b = "9"
c = concatenate(  str(a),  b)
d = add(a,  int(b)  )
Both Java and Python are strongly typed languages. Examples of weakly typed languages are Perl and Rexx.
A third distinction may be made between manifestly typed languages in which variable names must have explicit type declarations, and implicitly typed languages in which this is not required. Implicitly-typed languages use type inferencing rather than data declarations to determine the types of variables.
Most static languages, like Java, are also manifestly typed.  But Frank Mitchell notes that some are not: “Haskell and the dialects of ML, for example, can infer the type of any variable based on the operations performed on it, with only occasional help from an explicit type.” Scala is an interesting new statically-typed language for the Java Virtual Machine that uses type inference
Boo is a Python-like language with type inferencing that runs on the .NET CLI. Here is a snippet from the Boo page about Boo’s type inference:
Assignments can be used to introduce new variables in the current scope. The type for the new variable will be inferred from the expression on the right. Only the first assignment to a variable is taken into account by the type inference mechanism.
The following program is illegal:
        s = "I'm a string"   # s is bound with type string
        s = 42               # and although 42 is a really cool number s can only hold strings

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